Cámaras de un gramo revelan que las ratas tienen doble visión

Tema en 'Noticias sobre las Plagas Urbanas' iniciado por Rattus, el 28 May 2013.

  1. Rattus Administrador

    MADRID, 28 May. (EUROPA PRESS) -
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    Científicos del Instituto Max Planck de Cibernética Biológica en Tubinga, utilizando cámaras de alta velocidad en miniatura y seguimiento del comportamiento en alta velocidad, han descubierto que las ratas mueven los ojos en direcciones opuestas, tanto en horizontal como en vertical, cuando corren. Cada ojo se mueve en una dirección diferente, dependiendo del cambio en la posición de la cabeza del animal.

    Un análisis de campo de visión en ambos ojos "encontró que los movimientos de los ojos excluyen la posibilidad de que las ratas fusionen la información visual en una sola imagen como hacen los humanos. En cambio, mueven los ojos de tal manera que permite que el espacio por encima de ellas esté permanentemente a la vista - presumiblemente una adaptación para ayudar a hacer frente a la mayor amenaza a los roedores en su entorno natual: las aves rapaces.

    Al igual que muchos mamíferos, las ratas tienen sus ojos en los lados de la cabeza. Esto les da un amplio campo visual, útil para la detección de los depredadores. Sin embargo, la visión tridimensional requiere la superposición de los campos visuales de los dos ojos. Por lo tanto, el sistema visual de estos animales tiene que cumplir dos exigencias contradictorias al mismo tiempo: máxima capacidad de detección, por un lado, y detallada visión binocular, por otro.

    El equipo de investigadores del Instituto Max Planck de Cibernética Biológica ha observado y caracterizado por primera vez que los ojos de las ratas se mueven libremente. Aplicaron cámaras minúsculas que sólo pesan aproximadamente un gramo en las cabezas de los animales, lo que permitió grabar movimientos oculares rápidos como un rayo con gran precisión. Los científicos también utilizaron otro nuevo método para medir la posición y la orientación de la cabeza, lo que les permitió reconstruir la línea exacta de visión de las ratas en un momento dado.

    Los hallazgos de los científicos del Instituto Max Planck fueron una sorpresa completa. Aunque las ratas procesan la información visual de sus ojos a través de las vías cerebrales muy similares a otros mamíferos, sus ojos se mueven evidentemente de una manera totalmente diferente. "Los seres humanos mueven los ojos de una manera muy estereotipada tanto para contrarrestar movimientos de la cabeza y buscar alrededor. Nuestros ojos se mueven juntos y siempre siguen el mismo objeto. En las ratas, los ojos se mueven generalmente en direcciones opuestas," explica Jason Kerr, del Instituto Max Planck de Cibernética Biológica.

    En una serie de experimentos de comportamiento, los neurobiólogos también descubrieron que los movimientos oculares dependen en gran medida de la posición de la cabeza del animal. "Cuando apunta hacia abajo la cabeza, los ojos se mueven hacia atrás, lejos de la punta de la nariz, y cuando la rata levanta la cabeza, los ojos miran hacia adelante.

    En los seres humanos, la dirección en la que miran los ojos debe estar alineado con precisión, de lo contrario un objeto no puede ser fijado. Una desviación que mide menos de un solo grado del campo de visión es suficiente para causar visión doble. En las ratas, los movimientos oculares opuestas entre el ojo izquierdo y derecho significan que la línea de visión varía en hasta 40 grados en el plano horizontal y de hasta 60 grados en el plano vertical.

    La consecuencia de estos movimientos inusuales del ojo es que, independientemente de los movimientos de cabeza en todos los planos, los movimientos de los ojos siempre se mueven de tal manera que aseguran que el área por encima del animal está siempre a la vista simultáneamente por ambos ojos, algo que no ocurre en cualquier otra región del campo visual de la rata.

    Fuente: http://www.europapress.es/ciencia/noticia-camaras-gramo-revelan-ratas-tienen-doble-vision-20130528112647.html
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